SEEK THE CONTEXT: Biblical Texts, Language, Cultural Background & Meaning. Context Changes Everything!

No such place as Calvary in Ancient Jerusalem

No such place as Calvary in Ancient Jerusalem

An old Christian hymn evokes God’s help to never to forget the suffering of Jesus – “King of my life, I crown Thee now, Thine shall the glory be; lest I forget Thy thorn-crowned brow, lead me to Calvary… Lest I forget Thy love for me, lead me to Calvary.” These are heartfelt and meaningful words. But you might be shocked… There was no such place as Calvary in ancient Jerusalem.

Search all over the New Testament and you will not find it. You will not find it in any of the gospel passages, describing how Jesus was executed. You may find it in the English translations, but not in the Greek text. Mark, Matthew and John all mention Golgotha – a word which according to them translates as “the place of the skull”. Luke also mentions the “skull place” but does not mention the original Semitic name.

Three gospels mention that Golgotha is a Hebrew word, though no one is certain if it was truly Hebrew, Aramaic or some mixture of the two. In Aramaic גֻלגָלִתָא (gulgulita) could mean a skull or a head. According to the Dictionary of the Targumim (Jastrow) it means “a round stone” or “a ball”. The association with the round shaped skull makes sense. But that is not exactly the same as Γολγοθά (golgotha) the original word preserved in the Greek manuscripts. So we are actually not sure about the original term and we are left with the translations supplied to us by the gospel authors themselves.

Indeed, Golgotha was a real place situated somewhere outside the walls of the 1st century Jerusalem, not far from the garden with tombs of wealthy people. But the name Calvary comes from the Latin word calvaria which translates as “skull”. The name Calvary was not in use in Jesus’s day and his followers did not call the place where he died Calvary. Only when Jerome created the Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible (late 4th century) the word came into gradual Christian use. So here is the mystery – Calvary is not a biblical word, but rather a post-biblical one. Today people sing songs about Calvary, not even realizing they are using a Latin word from the Catholic Vulgate translation. Calvary is not really a biblical word since the 1st-century inhabitants of Jerusalem and the gospel writers themselves never used it.

So, if you wish to continue to use Latin terminology then, by all means, continue calling the place of Jesus’ death Calvary. But if you want to be biblically and historically accurate call it Golgotha as New Testament does. This is what the claim there was no Calvary in ancient Jerusalem really focuses on. Language is never superficial. It has specific meaning and it conveys images and ideas into our minds.

Most people would say, “what’s the difference what we call it? Greek, Hebrew, Latin… That does not change anything.” Actually, it does. Using Latin terms which did not exist in the 1st century Jerusalem creates a false sense that the setting is not really Jewish and as if it all happened in Rome or somewhere else. It changes the context. The English Bible has already been thoroughly de-Judaized and stripped of its Semitic feel over the ages. In the process of translation people’s names, geographical locations have been changed beyond recognition. Many theological ideas and terms were smoothed out to the degree they are not recognizable.

It may seem like not a big deal and a trivial matter, but that is exactly the reason why people misunderstand the meaning of Biblical passages. The context is missing, so they take the words and ideas out of context. Language matters and context changes everything


I am an educator, researcher, a faculty member and an avid believer in online education. My specialties are Sacred Texts and Cultures (Second Temple period, early Judaism and nascent Christianity). I am passionate about meaning, context, and cultural transmission of ancient texts. My preoccupations with history, ancient languages and contextual interpretation often find expression in my blog posts. Every human has a pretext, every message has a context. Context changes everything! Enjoy reading.

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