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Akedah in An Egyptian Magical Papyrus

Akedah in An Egyptian Magical Papyrus

A remarkable papyrus written in Coptic was uncovered during a 1934 expedition by New York’s Metropolitan Museum of Art. The manuscript was preserved by the Met but had never been deciphered or detailed in a scientific journal until now. It is a 1,500-year-old ‘magical papyrus’, probably meant to be used in some sort of a ritual. It was found near the pyramid of the Pharaoh Senwosret I.  The unnamed person(s) who wrote the incantations in Coptic (an Egyptian language that uses the Greek alphabet), invoked God many times.

“God of Seth, God of Abraham, God of Isaac, God of Jacob, God of Israel, watch over everyone who suffers. My word, may it come to pass with power,” reads part of the translated papyrus.

The text dates to a time when Christianity was widely practiced in Egypt

“May every spirit that is in the air obey me,” the papyrus user asks God.

Several times in the papyrus God is called “the one who presides over the Mountain of the Murderer” a phrase that likely refers to a story in the Book of Genesis in which God told Abraham to sacrifice his son Isaac on Mount Moriah, wrote Michael Zellmann-Rohrer, a researcher in the department of classics at Oxford University, who described the magical papyrus in the journal Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde. Zellmann-Rohrer became aware of the text while looking through the Met’s digital catalog of its holdings.

In Jewish tradition, the story of Abraham taking Isaac to Moriah is called Akedah – “the binding”. It is one of the most significant and spiritual stories in the Torah, reiterated by many pious Jews in daily prayers. The Book of Genesis says that God stopped Abraham before he actually killed his son.

“Abraham’s Sacrifice” by Rembrandt, c 1655.

However, in this papyrus tells the story in such a way that it sounds as if the sacrifice wasn’t stopped wrote Zellmann-Rohrer noting that other texts from the ancient world also claim that the sacrifice was completed. “The tradition of a literal sacrifice seems, in fact, to have been rather widespread,” Zellmann-Rohrer wrote.

“The text surely belongs to a Coptic phase of habitation at the pyramid complex, noted by the excavators, which is marked by substantial burials,” wrote Zellmann-Rohrer in his paper. He told Live Science that it’s possible that the papyrus was put in one of the burials.

The papyrus is likely a copy of another text, possibly part of a book. Based on the handwriting, the text seems to have been copied onto the papyrus by two or possibly three people, Zellmann-Rohrer wrote. He added that the writing “lacks professional proficiency” and that those who copied the text were likely not professional scribes.

The papyrus makes little reference to the New Testament, referring mainly to individuals mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. The papyrus also mentions terms and names often used by followers of Gnosticism, a religion that incorporated some of the beliefs of Christianity, explained Zellmann-Rohrer. Those who copied the text onto the papyrus may have been Christians who “made use of a textual tradition that owed much to Jewish belief and lore and to Gnosticism”. The papyrus never mentions the name of the person who used the artifact for the magical ritual it was intended.

Original Source: Owen Jarus, Live Science, 2018


I am an educator, researcher, a faculty member and an avid believer in online education. My specialties are Sacred Texts and Cultures (Second Temple period, early Judaism and nascent Christianity). I am passionate about meaning, context, and cultural transmission of ancient texts. My preoccupations with history, ancient languages and contextual interpretation often find expression in my blog posts. Every human has a pretext, every message has a context. Context changes everything! Enjoy reading.

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